Water is a chemical compound consisting of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen. The name water typically refers to the liquid state of the compound.
Wastewater is liquid waste discharged by domestic residences,commercial properties, industry, agriculture, which often contains some contaminants that result from the mixing of wastewater from different sources
If your water is coming from a well and the water is rust colored, then the problem is probably iron. If the water color is black it could be either sulfur, which has a smell like rotten eggs or manganese. All of these can be treated with an ion exchange water treatment system. A bigger problem is if the water has a very fine dirt content which may indicate the presence ofcolloidal clay. A good indication if you have a clay problem is if water in a glass stays cloudy after sitting for 60 minutes. If this is the case a coagulation filter system may be required.
If you want to just treat the drinking and cooking water at your sink POU (point of use), you have several good options. A reverse osmosis System can greatly improve the taste and the quality of your water. If the offensive taste is clearly chlorine then a good carbon filtration unit can be used. If you elect to treat the whole house, a system that is installed at the point where the water enters the home POE (point of entry), then your first step is to identify what is causing the problem (have a water analysis done). Once you have identified what is causing the taste problem you can then research what type of water treatment equipment is designed to address your specific needs.
Coliform bacteria can be an indicator that the well may be susceptible to bacteria contamination. There are several option that you have. One is to disinfect the well and retest for coliform. If this second test also shows positive for coliform, then a hole house water treatment system should be considered. The most commonly used treatment methods are ultraviolet (UV), ozonation and chemical feed pump.
Keep in mind that there have been very, very few problems with water supplied by local water municipalities. A bigger concern is water that is supplied by private wells or springs. If you are concerned about the quality of your tap water have it checked by a state approved lab. If the lab report indicates that there are no health related contaminants in your tap water there is little reason to worry. If you would like to treat your water due to an undesirable taste or odor there is a variety of good water treatment choices available to you.
Reverse osmosis systems produce pure water by forcing untreated water or tap water through a semi permeable membrane. The membrane lets only water molecules pass through directing it to the units storage tank,, the impurities that are separated from the water molecules are forced down the drain. The system consists of both pre and post filters which add additional contaminant removal. For more information on Reverse Osmosis systems or Reverse Osmosis Installation.
Carbon used in filtration applications is produced by grinding a carbon source - like bituminous coal, peat or coconut shells and heating the material in the absence of oxygen to 1000 degrees to bake off impurities. The material is then subjected to 1600-degree steam to "activate" the carbon. The steam leaves carbon granules filled with cracks and pores, enabling them to store large amounts of chemicals. One pound of activated carbon (the amount in a standard ten-inch filter cartridge) has the equivalent surface area of a 160 acre farm. Carbon removes contaminants in two ways: through adsorption , contaminants are attracted to the surface of the activated carbon and held to it in much the same way a magnet attracts and holds iron filings; and by acting as a catalyst to change the chemical composition of some contaminants. Activated carbon is ideal for removing chlorine, organic chemicals such as many kinds of pesticides, THMs like chloroform and many VOCs that are components of gasoline, solvents and industrial cleaners.
An ultraviolet (UV) system uses UV to inactivate certain bacteria, viruses and cysts that may be present in the water source that flows through the systems UV chamber. The effectiveness of UV depends upon the dose of disinfectant received by the organism, which is the combination of UV intensity times the contact time involved. It is advisable to always pre-treat the water entering the UV system. For more information on Ultraviolet (UV) Water Treatment Systems.
Water purification generally means freeing water from any kind of impurity it contains, such as contaminants or micro organisms. Water purification is not a very one-sided process; the purification process contains many steps. The steps that need to be progressed depend on the kind of impurities that are found in the water. This can differ very much for different types of water.
If your have clear water (ferrous) iron, the best method (depending on how many PPM) is a heavy duty water softener designed for iron removal. If you have red water (ferric) iron, the best method is a heavy duty backwashing filter with special iron removal media mixed with calcite. If you are unfortunate enough to have ferrous and ferric iron, you could be looking at needing a heavy duty backwashing iron filter and a heavy duty water softener to reliably combat this problem. Chlorine injection systems followed with GAC (carbon) filters have been used in the past by water treatment companies for iron removal but require frequent carbon replacement because the carbon quickly clogs with iron and water pressure problems are an issue. The chlorine injection method does not soften the water, and hard water often accompanies irony water – this method is not best for clear and/or red water iron. Chlorine injection systems are the preferred method for hard to control bacterial and organic iron – sometimes this maintenance heavy method is the only method that works. A rare form called "colloidal iron" is iron that has a specific gravity only slightly more than that of water and has a molecular structure and charge that causes it to resist coagulation and filtration. Special iron filtration systems using alum as a coagulant, a settling tank and special filters are need to remove this hard to treat form of iron.
Hard Water has a higher content of minerals than soft water. Due to this concentration, it can lead to the buildup of laundry detergent, soap, and minerals on your clothing, pipes, faucets, sinks, bathtubs, showers, and toilets. The use of hard water shortens the lifespan of your plumbing equipment considerably.
Water contains contaminants that occur naturally in it. Therefore, no source of water is ever entirely free of contaminants. It is important to consider the source of the bottled water that you are drinking, particularly because it is perfectly legal for manufacturers to use public drinking water rather than streams. If the water in your home is properly filtered, it is safe to drink and use. Why not consider a home water filtration system to ensure that your water supply is safe?
When water contains a significant amount of calcium and magnesium, it is called hard water. Hard water is known to clog pipes and to complicate soap and detergent dissolving in water. Water softening is a technique that serves the removal of the ions that cause the water to be hard, in most cases calcium and magnesium ions. Iron ions may also be removed during softening. The best way to soften water is to use a water softener unit and connect it directly to the water supply.
A water softener is a unit that is used to soften water, by removing the minerals that cause the water to be hard.
Water softening is an important process, because the hardness of water in households and companies is reduced during this process. When water is hard, it can clog pipes and soap will dissolve in it less easily. Water softening can prevent these negative effects. Hard water causes a higher risk of lime scale deposits in household water systems. Due to this lime scale build-up, pipes are blocked and the efficiency of hot boilers and tanks is reduced. This increases the cost of domestic water heating by about fifteen to twenty percent. Another negative effect of lime scale is that it has damaging effects on household machinery, such as washing machines. Water softening means expanding the life span of household machine, such as washing machines and the life span of pipelines. It also contributes to the improved working,.
Water softeners are specific ion exchangers that are designed to remove ions, which are positively charged. Softeners mainly remove calcium (Ca2+) and magnesium (Mg2+) ions. Calcium and magnesium are often referred to as 'hardness minerals'. Softeners are sometimes even applied to remove iron. The softening devices are able to remove up to five milligrams per litre (5 mg/L) of dissolved iron. Softeners can operate automatic, semi-automatic, or manual. Each type is rated on the amount of hardness it can remove before regeneration is necessary. A water softener collects hardness minerals within its conditioning tank and from time to time flushes them away to drain. Ion exchangers are often used for water softening. When an ion exchanger is applied for water softening, it will replace the calcium and magnesium ions in the water with other ions, for instance sodium or potassium. The exchanger ions are added to the ion exchanger reservoir as sodium and potassium salts (NaCl and KCl).
When the water does not become soft enough, one should first consider problems with the salt that is used, or mechanical malfunctions of softener components. When these elements are not the cause of the unsatisfactory water softening, it may be time to replace the softener resin, or perhaps even the entire softener. Through experience we know that most softener resins and ion exchanger resins last about twenty to twenty-five years.
Usually it is not necessary to clean out a brine tank, unless the salt product being used is high in water-insoluble matter, or there is a serious malfunction of some sort. If there is a build-up of insoluble matter in the resin, the reservoir should be cleaned out to prevent softener malfunction.
When loosely compacted salt pellets or cube-style salt is used in a resin, it may form tiny crystals of evaporated salt, which are similar to table salt. These crystals may bond, creating a thick mass in the brine tank. This phenomenon, commonly known as 'mushing', may interrupt brine production. Brine production is the most important element for refreshing of the resin beads in a water softener. Without brine production, a water softener is not able produce soft water.
Our softeners will remove certain types of iron from water. There are several types of iron found in water. If it is a soluble iron, commonly known as ferrous iron, and is not more than 3 ppm, then in most cases it will remove it from your water. Other forms of iron, such as ferric iron requires the installation of a separate "iron filter" which looks very similar to a softener without the salt or brine tank. These iron filters generally have a timer and valve unit that are pre-set to backwash their special iron removing media as needed, usually every four days. Iron filters should be installed ahead of, or in front of your water softener, to help keep your softener resin clean and free of excessive iron.